Converting Jupyter Notebook to HTML


nb2wp – Convert Jupyter Notebook to HTML

This post describes nb2wp utility to convert Jupyter notebooks to plain HTML suitable for Note the difference between service and platform. The service is much stricter (no arbitrary plugins, no scripts, no CSS, no data: URI, etc.).

This utility does the following:

  • convert .ipynb to HTML using nbconvert using selected template (full, basic, or custom)
  • convert the CSS to inline style using pynliner so that the style will be honoured by WordPress. By default it replaces the CSS given by nbconvert with custom and simpler style.css that can be inlined by pynliner.
  • extract embedded images (such as ones produced by Matplotlib) and local images to img directory. You need to upload this img directory somewhere and provide URL prefix for the images.
  • convert Latex directives to Latex directives.

Then you need to do some manual works:

  • copy-paste the HTML inside the <body> to WordPress HTML editor
  • upload the image directory.

If you’re reading this in IndoML WordPress blog, you are actually reading the result of the conversion. You can view the original notebook on GitHub or with nbviewer. As you can see the output is quite similar.

Notes and Limitations

  • BEWARE with stray dollar character in your notebook. The script will interpret that as Latex directive.
  • Long line (width wise) in code cell is not displayed correctly.
  • The CSS will ignore your WordPress theme. The post will look more like Jupyter notebook than your themed blog.
  • There are a lot of untidy elements here and there. We’ll fix this as we go along.
  • The pynliner cannot handle selector containing parenthesis (e.g. div:not([blah])) and ~ (tilde) operator. That’s why we use custom css.

General Guides


Clone nb2wp repository to get the files.


In [1]:
from nb2wp import nb2wp

Help on function nb2wp in module nb2wp:

nb2wp(nbfile, out_dir='', template='full', css_files=['style.css'], save_img=True, img_dir='img', img_url_prefix='img', latex='wp', remove_attrs=True, footer=True, save_css=False, save_html=False, quiet=False)
    Convert Jupyter notebook file to HTML.
    nbfile:     The Jupyter notebook file
    out_dir:    Specify output directory. If empty,  a directory  with the same
                name as the notebook file will be created.
    template:   (Optional) nbconvert template file. The default is "full".  You
                may specify standard nbconvert template names such as "full" or
                "basic", or the path of custom nbconvert .TPL file.
    css_files:  Specify list of CSS files  to use.  The files will be  appended
                after one another. Default is  ['style.css'].  If not specified, 
                the CSS provided by nbconvert will be used.
    save_img:   Save  inline images  to  external  image files.  Default:  True.
                Setting this  to False  will cause failure in loading the image
                because disallows "data:" URI.
    img_dir:    The local directory to save images. The path may be relative or
                absolute. If relative, the directory will be under out_dir. 
                Default: "img". 
    img_url_prefix: The  root/parent directory of the images as seen from HTTP.
    latex:      Specify how to convert  Latex directives.  Default is "wp".  If
                empty,  no Latex conversion  will be performed  (the directives
                will be left unchanged).
    remove_attrs: Remove various HTML attributes such as "class", "id" from the
                output HTML file to simplify the file. Default: True
    footer:     Add conversion footer. Default: True
    save_css:   Save  the CSS  that is used to 'style.css' file in out_dir, for
                debugging. Default: False
    save_html:  Save  the HTML  before it is  processed to 'input.html' file in
                out_dir, for debugging. Default: False
    quiet:      No output to stdout if true. Default: False

Generating WordPress HTML

In [2]:
nb2wp('Readme.ipynb', out_dir='out/Readme',  remove_attrs=False,
      img_url_prefix='' + 
Using template: full
Using CSS files ['style.css']
out/Readme\Readme.html: 178426 bytes written in 35.263s

The command above will do the following:

Then you need to open Readme.html (open out/Readme/Readme.html if you’re reading this from Jupyter notebook) and copy/paste the elements inside <body> to WordPress HTML editor.

As for the image, in this example we place the image files on GitHub along with this notebook, so I just need to add, commit, and push this repository to make the images available at the above URL prefix. If you serve the image files from elsewhere, you need to copy the images there and call with img_url_prefix parameter set accordingly.

That’s pretty much all. The rest of the notebook is to demonstrate various notebook features that can be converted by the utility.

Markdown Conversions

All markdown features should be converted. These are some Markdown demos from

h2 Heading

h3 Heading

h4 Heading

h5 Heading
h6 Heading

Horizontal Rules

Various ways to create horizontal lines:


This is bold text

This is also bold text

This is italic text

This is also italic text



Blockquotes can also be nested…

…by using additional greater-than signs right next to each other…

…or with spaces between arrows.



  • Create a list by starting a line with +, -, or *
  • Sub-lists are made by indenting 2 spaces:
    • Marker character change forces new list start:
      • Ac tristique libero volutpat at
      • Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
      • Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
  • Very easy!


  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
    1. Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
    2. Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
  2. Consectetur adipiscing elit
  3. Integer molestie lorem at massa
  1. You can use sequential numbers…
  2. …or keep all the numbers as 1.

Start numbering with offset:

  1. foo
  2. bar


Inline code

Indented code

// Some comments
line 1 of code
line 2 of code
line 3 of code

Block code “fences”

Sample text here...

Syntax highlighting

var foo = function (bar) {
  return bar++;



Option Description
data path to data files to supply the data that will be passed into templates.
engine engine to be used for processing templates. Handlebars is the default.
ext extension to be used for dest files.

Right aligned columns

Option Description
data path to data files to supply the data that will be passed into templates.
engine engine to be used for processing templates. Handlebars is the default.
ext extension to be used for dest files.


Remote Image

Remote images (images with src URL containing full http URL) should work.


Local Image

Local images (images with src pointing to local image) will be copied to out_dir/img directory its name renamed.

Below is an image of a carrot. Can you see it?

A carrot



Latex directives will be converted. Supported target currently is “wp”.

This formula: \sigma = \frac{1}{1 + e^{-x}}  is a definition of sigmoid.

So is this, only bigger and is place on its own line:

\sigma = \frac{1}{1 + e^{-x}}

Pandas DataFrame

In [3]:
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

df = pd.DataFrame({
print('Showing a dataframe:')
Showing a dataframe:
age name state
0 23 john N/A
1 78 mary dc
2 22 peter california
3 19 jeff texas
4 12 bill N/A
5 33 lisa dc


In [4]:
fig, ((ax1, ax2), (ax3, ax4)) = plt.subplots(2, 2, figsize=(12, 12))
fig.suptitle('Multiple Random Charts')
rng = np.random.RandomState(0)
x = rng.randn(100)
y = rng.randn(100)
colors = rng.rand(100)
sizes = 1000 * rng.rand(100)

ax1.scatter(x, y, c=colors, s=sizes, alpha=0.3,

rng = np.random.RandomState(0)
for marker in ['o', '.', ',', 'x', '+', 'v', '^', '<', '>', 's', 'd']:
    ax2.plot(rng.rand(5), rng.rand(5), marker,
ax2.set_xlim(0, 1.8);

x = np.linspace(0, 10, 30)
y = np.sin(x)
ax3.plot(x, y, '-ok');

for i in range(4):
    x = np.random.normal(loc=i, size=100)
    y = np.random.normal(loc=i, size=100)
    ax4.scatter(x, y, label=str(i))

fig.tight_layout(rect=[0, 0.03, 1, 0.97])

Run Again

Let’s run the conversion again to make sure everything above this has been run.

In [5]:
nb2wp('Readme.ipynb', out_dir='out/Readme',  remove_attrs=False,
      img_url_prefix='' + 
Using template: full
Using CSS files ['style.css']
out/Readme\Readme.html: 162256 bytes written in 29.610s

WordPress conversion from Readme.ipynb by nb2wp v0.3.1


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